HTML5 Boilerplate homepage | Documentation table of contents
HTML5 Boilerplate includes a basic project-level
.gitignore. This should
primarily be used to avoid certain project-level files and directories from
being kept under source control. Different development-environments will
benefit from different collections of ignores.
OS-specific and editor-specific files should be ignored using a “global ignore” that applies to all repositories on your system.
For example, add the following to your
~/.gitconfig, where the
in your HOME directory contains the files and directories you’d like to
[core] excludesfile = ~/.gitignore
- More on global ignores: https://help.github.com/articles/ignoring-files/
- Comprehensive set of ignores on GitHub: https://github.com/github/gitignore
.editorconfig file is provided in order to encourage and help you and
your team define and maintain consistent coding styles between different
editors and IDEs.
.editorconfig includes some basic
properties that reflect the
coding styles from the files provided by default, but you can easily change
them to better suit your needs.
In order for your editor/IDE to apply the
properties from the
.editorconfig file, you may need to install a
N.B. If you aren’t using the server configurations provided by HTML5
Boilerplate, we highly encourage you to configure your server to block
.editorconfig files, as they can disclose sensitive information!
For more details, please refer to the EditorConfig project.
H5BP includes a
.htaccess file for the Apache HTTP
server. If you are not using Apache
as your web server, then you are encouraged to download a
server configuration that
corresponds to your web server and environment.
.htaccess (hypertext access) file is an Apache HTTP server
.htaccess file is mostly used for:
- Rewriting URLs
- Controlling cache
- Server-side includes
If you have access to the main server configuration file (usually called
httpd.conf), you should add the logic from the
.htaccess file in, for
<Directory> section in the main configuration file. This is usually
the recommended way, as using .htaccess files slows down Apache!
To enable Apache modules locally, please see the Apache modules documentation
In the repo the
.htaccess is used for:
- Allowing cross-origin access to web fonts
- CORS header for images when browsers request it
404.htmlas 404 error document
- Making the website experience better for IE users better
- Media UTF-8 as character encoding for
- Enabling the rewrite URLs engine
- Forcing or removing the
www.at the begin of a URL
- It blocks access to directories without a default document
- It blocks access to files that can expose sensitive information.
- It reduces MIME type security risks
- It forces compressing (gzipping)
- It tells the browser whether they should request a specific file from the server or whether they should grab it from the browser’s cache
.htaccess we recommend reading all inline comments (the rules after
#) in the file once. There is a bunch of optional stuff in it.
If you want to know more about the
.htaccess file check out the
Apache HTTP server docs or more
specifically the htaccess
Notice that the original repo for the
.htaccess file is this
robots.txt file is used to give instructions to web robots on what can
be crawled from the website.
By default, the file provided by this project includes the next two lines:
User-agent: *- the following rules apply to all web robots
Disallow:- everything on the website is allowed to be crawled
If you want to disallow certain pages you will need to specify the path in a
Disallow directive (e.g.:
Disallow: /path) or, if you want to disallow
crawling of all content, use
/robots.txt file is not intended for access control, so don’t try to
use it as such. Think of it as a “No Entry” sign, rather than a locked door.
URLs disallowed by the
robots.txt file might still be indexed without being
crawled, and the content from within the
robots.txt file can be viewed by
anyone, potentially disclosing the location of your private content! So, if
you want to block access to private content, use proper authentication instead.
For more information about
robots.txt, please see:
humans.txt file is used to provide information about people involved with
The provided file contains three sections:
TEAM- this is intended to list the group of people responsible for the website
THANKS- this is intended to list the group of people that have contributed to the website
TECHNOLOGY COLOPHON- the section lists technologies used to make the website
For more information about
humans.txt, please see: http://humanstxt.org/
browserconfig.xml file is used to customize the tile displayed when users
pin your site to the Windows 8.1 start screen. In there you can define custom
tile colors, custom images or even live tiles.
By default, the file points to 2 placeholder tile images:
tile.png(558x558px): used for
Largetiles. This image resizes automatically when necessary.
tile-wide.png(558x270px): user for
Notice that IE11 uses the same images when adding a site to the
For more in-depth information about the
browserconfig.xml file, please
package.json is used to define attributes of your site or application for
if you’re interested. The fields we provide are as follows:
title- the title of your project. If you expect to publish your application to npm, then the name needs to follow certain guidelines and be unique.
version- indicates the version of your site application using semantic versioning (semver)
description- describes your site.
startbuilds your site and starts a server
index.htmlwith a simple development server
keywords- an array of keywords used to discover your app in the npm registry
author- defines the author of a package. There is also an alternative contributors field if there’s more than one author.
license- the license for your application. Must conform to specific rules
devDependencies- development dependencies for your package. In our case it’s a single dependency, Parcel, which we use to bundle files and run a simple web server.